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FAO/UNEP/UN-Energy Bioenergy Decision Support Tool -
MODULE 2: Designing a Strategy
The bioenergy stakeholder forum and task force should be
tied into existing national development institutions and fora,
such as executive agencies and existing multi-sectoral and
multi-stakeholder coordination bodies or committees concerned
with national development and poverty alleviation. The task force
will report back to the Stakeholder Forum at each step in the
process to invite feedback and to allow for eventual corrections in
view of information and clarifcation brought about by those key
stakeholders. Mobilisation of stakeholders is thus concerned with
facilitating a reliable fow of information among the stakeholders
and integrating consensus-building steps into the strategy
design process. Effective stakeholder engagement improves
the chances of addressing the major risks and opportunities
related to bioenergy and also serves to achieve broad buy-in for
decisions on bioenergy that affect the various stakeholder groups
<Mod6-People and Processes>.
The participation of stakeholders should be evaluated and
adjusted at appropriate stages during the strategy design process
in order to ensure the meaningful engagement of stakeholders.
The quality of participation can be measured both in terms of
the results of the strategy design and the process of stakeholder
engagement itself. The results at some intermediate stage of
the strategy design can be subjected to an assessment or
measurement of equity, fairness and sustainability across the
various stakeholder interests. The quality of the strategy design
process can be measured with respect to the inclusiveness of
perspectives and priorities and a sense of broad-based ownership
of—and support for—the policy and strategy. Table 3 provides
a results-oriented checklist. For quality of participation, some
suggested benchmarks are (Karl, 2002):
• Provision of necessary information to key partners regarding
the impacts of relevant past policy/strategy and the rationale
for new policy/strategy;
• Capacity-building for key partners to understand how to utilise
information provided;
• Facilitated consultation and negotiation across different
stakeholder groups to bring out diverse perspectives and
priorities and attain agreement on the resolution of differences;
• Well-defned monitoring procedure for feedback throughout
the design process; and
• Support to partners in fulflling their roles in subsequent
implementation of policy/strategy.
It is important to note that the monitoring and quality check
on the participatory process will certainly be useful beyond
the strategy design itself. Many of the same stakeholders are
potential participants in the implementation of the strategy and/or
in individual projects that arise. A better understanding of which
stakeholders are playing a constructive role in moving the process
forward offers insights into whether and how they will support the
Why? – Objectives and Priorities
Bioenergy cuts across different disciplines and national
departments or ministries, notably energy, agriculture,
environment, industry, and trade. Different policy objectives are
put forward to motivate bioenergy development: achieving these
objectives will infuence the pathway that is taken in developing
biomass resources in the country or region, To ensure continuity
in the decision-making processes and to avoid unintended
consequences, a bioenergy strategy thus needs to be embedded
in the broader policy context and requires an analysis of the
trade-offs across the different objectives.
The decision process for answering the question “Why?”
can be viewed as beginning with objectives and ending with
priorities (Figure 5) with a number of intervening stages. Due to
the potentially wide-ranging impacts of bioenergy, the decision
stages will not be linear in execution: there will be feedbacks and
iterations, depending on the scale and scope of the strategy, and
some judgement is needed in adapting the decision processes to
ft the particular national and/or regional context.
The bioenergy strategy and the new role for bioenergy thereby
created should provide added value that is unlikely to be
otherwise obtained. This “added value” must be judged in relation
to national and/or regional development strategies, including
poverty reduction goals, rural development plans, natural resource
management plans and sectoral policies. Since bioenergy
expansion is linked to so many sectors (e.g. energy, agriculture,
forests, transport) the objectives pursued and the priorities that
are set can have wide-ranging impacts; consequently the “Why”
phase of the bioenergy strategy design is signifcant.
Objective fulfllment
• Audience size
Interest groups
• Stakeholders
• New contacts
• Relationships
• Stakeholders’ attitude change
• Stakeholders’ success (capacity to
infuence, ownership of the process,
• Scope, area or other measures
• Time and relative progress
• Budget and % used
• Level of progress
• Formal/non-formal
• Ground rules
• Feedback/Debriefng
• Transparency
• Effciency, effectiveness
• Appropriate techniques
• Media coverage
• Competency and infuence
Internal/external organizational change
• Follow up actions (e.g. other public
participation processes)
• Awareness raising
• Policy and strategy/management
Improved achievements in the interest
of the broad public
Improved public commitment
Table 3: Checklist of parameters to monitor performance of the participatory process
Source: Adapted from FAO/ECE/ILO, 2000