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6
FAO/UNEP/UN-Energy Bioenergy Decision Support Tool -
MODULE 2: Designing a Strategy
ARTICULATING OBJECTIVES
Objectives must be articulated within a national or regional
context, and often include the following:
• Energy Access:
expansion in grid and off-grid energy options
or improvements in the quality, reliability and/or delivery of
energy services;
• Agricultural Technology:
improvements in technical capacity,
infrastructure and management;
• Energy Security:
reduction in risks due to high energy prices or
constrained availability;
• GHG Mitigation:
to capture carbon fnance or to advance
climate-compatible growth;
• Rural development:
creating income-generating options and
stimulating rural economies; and
• Trade Balance:
often by substituting bioenergy for imported
oil, thus saving foreign exchange.
Key policy objectives such as these and the associated drivers
and constraints that drive a bioenergy strategy are not discussed
at length here since they have been reviewed in a previous
UN-Energy publication (UN-Energy, 2007).
EVALUATION IN LIGHT OF OTHER ENERGY OPTIONS
The objectives themselves are not limited to bioenergy or even
the energy sector, and therefore it is necessary to consider these
objectives alongside other energy and non-energy options; Table 4
provides some examples of alternatives for meeting various policy
objectives. A simple screening might be conducted on the basis
of key factors such as land and resource constraints, existing
technical capacity, employment and livelihoods, and availability
of infrastructure. Analysis needs to be based on an overall
assessment of energy resource endowments and their matching
with energy demands by end use
<Resource Effciency>
.
Although some alternatives may be more desirable within one
objective, it is also important to look across the objectives with
respect to bioenergy, since there may be several objectives
addressed simultaneously. In fact, bioenergy is often especially
valued over other energy types precisely because it addresses
several different
goals and sectors to a reasonable degree even
though it may not be the best option for any one
single
objective.
It is not possible to fully assess the implications of the policy
objectives without going into more detail on feedstocks and
spatially explicit options. Consequently, consideration of
alternatives such as those above at this stage merely informs
the scope of the decision process and does not defne specifc
links between objectives and elements of the bioenergy
strategy. A comprehensive evaluation of the objectives could
be accomplished by returning to
<Why?>
after completing the
<What?>
and
<Where?>
phases of the strategy process, which
address feedstocks and spatial aspects, respectively. The iterative
nature of strategy development requires continued consultations
within the bioenergy task force and feedback to the stakeholder
forum.
Articulating
Objectives
Comparing
with other
energy options
Identifying
cross sector
linkages
Evaluating
External
Drivers
Regional and
international
Relations
Incorporating
Local Needs
and Capabilities
Setting
Priorities
- Energy access
- Agricultural
technology
- Energy security
- GHG mitigation
- Rural development
- Improving trade
balance
- Land, water and
other resource
constraints
- Existing technical
capacity
- Employment and
livelihoods
- Availability of
infrastructure
- Energy resource
endowment
- Energy needs
- Agricultural policy
- Rural energy
framework
- Forest sector
- Industrial policy
- Power sector
- Transport policy
- Environment policy
- Water policy
- Energy import
dependence
- Donor relations in
energy sector
- Trade
balance/energy
- Climate change
vulnerability
- Regional policy
cooperation
- Bioenergy trade
- International
treaties
- Bilateral
agreements
- Local expertise
- O -grid options
- Food security
- Business
development
- Local mobility
- Climate portfolio
- Energy mix
- Legislative actions
- Bioenergy targets
Figure 5: Why? - Constituent decision processes and examples of options/components
Note: The options/components listed are examples and are not meant to include all possibilities
Table 4: Alternatives to bioenergy expansion for meeting various policy objectives
Electrifcation of
rural areas
Energy alternatives
to oil for transport
Energy security
and reduction of
import dependency
Climate change
mitigation
Rural and/or
agricultural
development
Improving trade
balance
• National grid
• Solar
• Wind
• Micro hydro
• Other renewables
• Diesel/petrol
generators
• LPG
• Methane
• Electricity
(alongside
deployment of
electric vehicles)
• Due consideration
for energy
demands from
other modes and
benefts from
modal shift
(e.g. rail)
• Hydropower
• Solar
• Wind
• Other renewables
• Coalor other fossil
power, if available
• Increased energy
effciency
• Reduced
deforestation
• Afforestation/
Reforestation
• Soil carbon
sequestration
• Renewables
(other than
bioenergy)
• Subsidies for
fertilisers and
other inputs
• Small farmer
technical support
• Entrepreneurial
support
• Other cash-crops
• Other exports
• Local industry
support
• Import substi-
tution incentives