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FAO/UNEP/UN-Energy Bioenergy Decision Support Tool -
MODULE 3: Implementation and Operation
rewarding as well (UNEP, 2009).
Furthermore, the value of the additional energy services is also
related to the opportunity for new income-generating activities
and for investments that support economic development. Table
7 provides a summary of the value attached to expanded energy
services of different types in agriculture, households and small
businesses. The many different energy services and the wide
range of opportunities they create offer a reminder of the crucial
role of expanded energy access in sustainable development.
END-USE TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS
For each end-use/sector pair, there will be a number of fuels and
technology options of varying effciencies and operating charac-
teristics that are available to meet the demand, and a detailed
assessment of overall (energy service) demand would include
a specifcation of the fuels and technology options. Figure 4
provides an example for cooking end-use in the residential sector.
In this example, there are just two technology options listed for
each fuel; the actual number of technology options assessed can
vary widely and should be based on those commonly used and
those expected to be available in the future.
A set of baseline data for a given end-use would generally
describe the main technology options that consumers are
currently using, since bioenergy options will have to compete
against other fuel/technology options. The technology options
might then be compared on the basis of a number of factors,
the most important generally being the purchase cost and the
operating cost, where the cost of fuel consumption is normally
the largest component of the operating cost. Where consumers
are willing to pay more for a more effcient option, there are
opportunities for energy, economic and environmental savings.
Other factors that might affect consumer choices include lifetime
of the technology option, health and safety issues and differences
in non-energy attributes (e.g. appearance).
ENERGY SUPPLY
The energy supply options will be characterised by fuel type,
availability, access, application platforms and other aspects. The
particular method of disaggregation in a given analysis will depend
Table 7: Examples of income generating value obtained from various energy services
Energy services
Income generating value to rural households and enterprises
Irrigation
Better yields, higher value crops, greater reliability, lower vulnerability, growing during periods
when market prices are higher
Lighting
Reading, manual production, other activities during evening hours
Pulping, grinding, milling, husking Create value added product from raw agricultural commodity
Drying, smoking, curing (preserving
food with process heat)
Create value added product; preserve produce to enable selling to higher-value markets
Expelling
Produce refned oils from oil seeds, and other sources
Refrigeration, ice production
Preserve produce to enable selling to higher value markets
Transport
Reach markets, acquire inputs
TV, radio, computer, Internet
Education, access to market news, coordination with suppliers and distributors, weather
information
Battery charging
Wide range of services for end user
Car/Truck
Air
Rail
Shipping
Cooking
Heating/
Cooling
Lighting
Computing
Household
appliances
Mechanical
Pumping
Ventilation
Cooling
Irrigation
Tillage
Harvesting
Loading
Electric
Power
Cogeneration
Plants
Gasworks
Refinery
NOTE: the number and type of modes or end-uses for each sector are examples only
Figure 3: Energy demand sectors with some examples of end-uses, modes or sub-sectors