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FAO/UNEP/UN-Energy Bioenergy Decision Support Tool -
MODULE 3: Implementation and Operation
allocated funds” (OECD, 2010). To evaluate the effectiveness of
these and other similar programs, different monitoring approaches
can be used, and these are discussed briefy below.
PARTICIPATORY MONITORING (AND EVALUATION):
For certain bioenergy policies, community and participatory
monitoring and evaluation can be a very powerful tool that directly
engages with affected communities where projects are being
implemented. Participatory monitoring involves “involves local
benefciaries in measuring, recording, collecting, processing and
communicating information to assist local development project
extension works and local group members in decision making”
(FAO, 2004)
RESULTS-BASED OR PERFORMANCE-BASED
MONITORING
Many types of national policies are results based in the sense
that there are benchmark indicators that indicate that certain
goals have been met. For example, if a government is initiating a
bioenergy policy to complement a Millennium Development Goal
(MDG), the performance indicator would be the development
measurement that goal tried to achieve (one example of this could
be 15% reduction in rural energy poverty). If a government has
implemented a policy towards the achievement of a development
goal, like the example above, this would be suitable for a
performance based monitoring approach.
POLICY AND PROGRAMME EVALUATION
Evaluations provide a systematic assessment of a particular policy
and/or program. Evaluations are complementary to monitoring
systems and can be defned as a process that determines
“the worth or signifcance of a development activity, policy or
program—to determine the relevance of objectives, the effcacy
of design and implementation, the effciency or resource use,
and the sustainability of results” (World Bank, 2010). Although
the type of evaluation will differ depending on the MMRE strategy
outlined, evaluations can assess the effectiveness, impact and
unintended impacts of a policy/program; process evaluations,
impact evaluations, cost-beneft analyses and theory-based
evaluations are all examples of different types of evaluations
to consider when designing an MMRE strategy. There should
also be channels that link evaluations and results as feedback
mechanisms that provide public policy “learned lessons” for future
policy development and program development.