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FAO/UNEP/UN-Energy Bioenergy Decision Support Tool -
MODULE 3: Implementation and Operation
Module 3:
Operational Issues and
Implementation
A number of operational issues arise in developing a bioenergy
strategy and moving it towards implementation: supporting
policies and institutions must be developed, the strategy must
be related to existing and potential programmes and projects
and the organisational set-up must be geared to various levels
of engagement with stakeholders based on technical, fnancial
and administrative roles. There also arises therefore a need for
procedures to evaluate the need to modify or design policies and
institutions in both the energy arena and related sectors, assess
bioenergy programmes and specifc bioenergy project proposals,
address the various impacts that arise and in general to mobilise
the necessary stakeholders to fnalise the strategy design and
engage in implementation.
The
organisation and ownership of resources
varies signifcantly
across countries, cultures and even geographical regions within a
country; the organisation of feedstock supply is a key determinant
of the ultimate success of any bioenergy initiative. A separate
discussion is also provided here for small-scale schemes, since
these can have a direct impact on livelihoods as well as impacting
cost-effectiveness and the matching of resource use to local
needs. The
implementation
of a bioenergy strategy proceeds on
the basis of the particular resource ownership and management
schemes, which are also tied to some extent to the choice of
feedstocks and applications. At the same time, the strategy must
be integrated with the overall
Energy and Resource Baselines
for
the country or region, so that biomass supply is in line with the
demand structure for energy services across different sectors.
The
Legal and Regulatory Framework
determines the institutional
boundaries and incentives, and establishes the key avenues for
carrying out the strategy. Bioenergy
Projects
and
Programmes
support the implementation of the strategy. Bioenergy Projects
tend to be located at a single site and involve a particular set of
feedstocks and technology platforms. Bioenergy
Programmes
are more dispersed geographically and/or they may deal with
mainly with capacity-building and outreach, for example a
programme for bioenergy from forest residues at several locations
scattered around the country. A capacity-building example
might be a programme for training farmers in a new or improved
set of cultivation techniques for specifc feedstocks. Ideally the
strategy should defne the basic structure and content of policies,
programmes and projects; however, in practice projects and
programmes evolve over time and can take on their own special
characteristics, especially for projects or programmes that are
technically advanced or are large in fnancial and/or geographical
terms. It is nevertheless necessary to include some procedures to
insure consistency with the strategy and to evaluate sustainability.
Stakeholder mobilisation
is needed throughout strategy design
and implementation. Monitoring, Measurement, Reporting and
Evaluation (MMRE) procedures are needed to track effectiveness
of policies, programmes, and projects. MMRE is discussed below,
while good practices for Community Engagement and Mobilising
Stakeholders are reviewed in
<Mod6: People and Processes>
.
Useful examples of policies, programmes and projects for various
sectors and applications are found in:
<Mod7: Deployment and
Good Practices>.
Resource Ownership:
Types and Impacts
The key determinant in the success of any bioenergy scheme is
often the reliability and cost of feedstock supply; consequently,
resource ownership and property rights need to be well-defned
and appropriate institutions implemented. The subsequent relation
between resource (or feedstock) suppliers and resource users
becomes critical in terms of sustaining the bioenergy system. In
this section, the signifcance of resource ownership and the types
of ownership schemes are reviewed and their implications in
terms of the distribution of socio-economic costs and benefts are
discussed.
Organisation and Ownership of Resources
(with special emphasis on small-scale schemes)
Establishing Legal
and Regulatory
Framework
Programme and
Project
Development
Devising an Implementation Strategy
Integrating with
Energy and
Resource Baselines
Figure 1: Components in strategy implementation and operations