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FAO/UNEP/UN-Energy Bioenergy Decision Support Tool -
MODULE 4: Project Screening
energy projects in general due to the signifcant requirements
for employment and the direct relation to livelihoods and local
economic interests (Disch, 2010). However, there also seems
to be a distinction between agricultural bioenergy projects vs.
industrial (e.g. black liquour) and forest-based bioenergy projects;
the agricultural projects have (or are perceived to have) greater
sustainable development benefts compared to the latter (Lee and
Lazarus, 2011).
BUNDLING OF PROJECTS
A common approach that emerged in the past decade or so—as
renewable energy markets have taken off—is the bundling of
projects that are small in scale and/or similar in purpose or
approach; bundling of projects can save on infrastructure costs,
transaction costs and fnancing. Most investors and banks have
diffculty with the smaller scale of investment that is common for
some types of bioenergy projects. In the case of CDM, bundling
has a specifc defnition: “Bringing together of several small-scale
CDM project activities, to form a single CDM project activity or
portfolio without the loss of distinctive characteristics of each
project activity” (CDM, 2010). There are nevertheless many other
circumstances where projects might be bundled and this should
be considered in the project evaluation if other aspects of the
project are acceptable.
Table 5: Bioenergy CDM projects registered and at validation stage
(as of January 2010)
Biomass Resource Type
Registered Projects
Projects at Validation Stage
Project Count
Annual Total CERs
(1000t CO
2
e/yr)
Project Count
Annual Total CERs
(1000t CO
2
e/yr)
Agricultural residues: mustard crop
5
180
5
141
Agricultural residues: other kinds
85
6,806
108
9,839
Agricultural residues: rice husk
58
1,944
98
6,795
Agricultural residues: bagasse cogeneration 80
3,160
72
3,598
Biodiesel
-
-
2
119
Biomass briquettes
3
20
9
143
Black Liquor
7
411
4
979
Forest biomass
3
92
11
1,314
Forest Residues: other
9
622
16
1,291
Forest Residues: sawmill waste
11
1,539
23
911
Gasifcation of biomass
6
120
8
162
Palm oil solid waste
24
1,957
25
1,326
TOTALS
291
16,851
381
26,617
Table 4: characteristics of selected voluntary carbon market standards/programmes
Source: Bloomberg NEF, 2010 (NOTE: VERs=Voluntary Emission Reductions)
Standard Description Co-Benefts
Required
Registry
Geographic
Scope
Total
Projects
Registered
Total VERs Verifed
Climate,
Community
& Biodiver-
sity (CCB)
Standard
Validation & verif-
cation program
for land-based
offset projects
Yes
Projects on website;
CCB label can be
added to registries
when verifed
International 20
VERs not issued
Gold
Standard
Certifcation for
offset projects &
carbon credits
Yes
powered by APX
International
International 311
2.2MtC02e / 1.1MtC02e
retired
Plan Vivo Validation and
verifcation
program for
forestry and agro-
forestry projects
Yes
Markit
International 4
0.75MtC02e issued and
retired
Voluntary
Carbon
Standard
Certifcation for
offset project &
carbon credits
No
Project Database;
Registries provided
by Markit, APX, and
Caisse des Depots
International 386 (345
public + 41
private)
validated and registered
30.1MtC02e
NOTE: Under CCB, land use improvements are main purpose although bioenergy may be feasible