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FAO/UNEP/UN-Energy Bioenergy Decision Support Tool -
MODULE 4: Project Screening
Table 1: A screening matrix to evaluate the compatibility of the project with bioenergy strategy
supportive
consistent
not applicable contrary
Policy objectives
(i.e. list of specifc goals or targets)
Sector priorities
(transport, heat/power, etc.)
Location and land use
(list by location, AEZ, and/or poverty/development zone)
Feedstocks and technologies
(List of crop/technology combinations)
Implementation mechanisms
(e.g. contractual structures, land rights)
There should also be consideration of other technical issues that
may have been addressed in the strategy such as agricultural feld
support systems and the status of allied industries and sectors
that may supply labour, parts, knowledge and/or trade/investment
mechanisms for bioenergy systems.
OWNERSHIP AND CONTRACTUAL STRUCTURES
A schematic with relevant questions related to ownership of
resources and contracts for feedstock supply is given in Figure
4 on the previous page. A bioenergy project can take advantage
of various legal and institutional mechanisms that have already
been planned within the bioenergy strategy, thereby improving the
effciency of the project design and implementation. At the same
time, the use of a particular mechanism (e.g. a standard contract
for feedstock suppliers) in the project may be useful in testing and
refning how that mechanism functions in practice.
The (property) rights associated with the use of biomass
resources are related—although not necessarily identical
to—ownership of the land on which the resources are obtained.
For a discussion on how project implementation is related to the
contractual set-up for biomass feedstock, see
<Mod3: Imple-
mentation>
. For a discussion of the stakeholders and process
es
involved in different contractual structures and ownership options,
see:
<Mod6: People and Processes>.
Since biomass feedstock generally constitutes the majority of the
costs in a bioenergy system, the issue of rights over resources
and the manner in which the parties reach agreement on
feedstock supply becomes crucial for the eventual success of
a project. Those projects that can adopt standard contracts or
guidelines from the bioenergy strategy may therefore have lower
risks. An analogous set of issues arise when evaluating fnancing
for the project (see Financial Viability below).
EVALUATING PROJECT COMPATIBILITY WITH
STRATEGY
It may be useful to use some type of scoring system in weighing
the project goals against the strategy using either qualitative
or quantitative measures. A strictly quantitative scoring system
may not be appropriate at a general level, since the scale and
relevance of projects will vary widely, a qualitative approach may
be more useful. A quantitative scoring scheme might be appro-
priate if there are specifc requirements for the project that can
be directly compared to the bioenergy strategy. In many cases,
however, a qualitative judgement may be suffcient, especially
if the project is small or medium-scale. A matrix can be used
to summarise the evaluation process, based on a determina-
tion made as to whether the project is considered supportive,
consistent, contrary, or indifferent (Table 1).
The defnitions for the categories could be as follows:
Supportive: the project reinforces the strategy in some way(s),
such as by directly addressing key target groups identifed in the
strategy, using infrastructure, technology or feedstocks that are
prioritised, or is located in an area where bioenergy development
is targeted;
Consistent: the project is in line with the basic goals and general
framework of the strategy in some ways or follows general
guidelines established in the strategy;
Not applicable: the project concerns a location, sector,
technology, crop/feedstock etc. that is not mentioned in the
strategy or which has no obvious connection to the strategy;
Contrary: the project has some aspects that appear to go against
the goals or criteria in the strategy.
When elements in the matrix are labelled as contrary, they
would require some further analysis and discussion, in terms of
the extent to which modifcations can be made to the project
proposal to eliminate the confict or offset its impacts.
Stakeholder Processes
A variety of stakeholders and organisational processes will be
needed in the process of designing, approving and eventually
implementing the project. In this section, some guidance is
provided on stakeholder processes and organisation, focusing on
those aspects most relevant to the design, review and approval
of a project (as opposed to implementation). Many of the same
stakeholders and organisational structures could also be part of
project implementation, which is in turn related to the bioenergy
strategy implementation
<Mod3-Implementation and Opera-
tions>
. Brief discussion is included in this section on project
stakeholder identifcation, organisation and engagement, including
interaction with the affected region and communities.
PROJECT TASK FORCE
If the bioenergy project is of suffcient scale, scope and/or
impact, a
Project Task Force
could be established to take the