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FAO/UNEP/UN-Energy Bioenergy Decision Support Tool -
MODULE 6: People and Processes
Whereas monitoring can be qualitative or quantitative, measure-
ment often implies quantitative tracking of progress based on
specifc benchmarks and indicators. Designing some quantitative
performance measures at policy and programme levels is impor-
tant for bioenergy, as it makes for more concrete implementation
and provides some sense of progress. Measurement is particu-
larly needed to address conformance to technical or sustainability
standards and for international policy processes, especially for
GHG reductions. Under the agreements reached by the UNFCCC
and given in the Bali Action Plan, mitigation actions should be
“measurable, reportable and verifable.” The concept and the
agreement relate to not only mitigation efforts themselves, but
also to fnancing, technology transfer and capacity-building (South
Centre, 2008). Similar principles can be applied to bioenergy
programmes and used in the evaluation process.
MMMRE can be applied at the project, programme and policy
level. Monitoring can be defned as a feedback function that
“uses systematic collection of data on specifed indicators to
provide management and the main stakeholders of an ongoing
development intervention with indications of the extent of
progress and achievement of objectives and progress and use of
allocated funds” (OECD, 2010). To evaluate the effectiveness of
these and other similar programs, different monitoring approaches
can be used, and these are discussed briefy below.
For certain bioenergy programmes or policies, community and
participatory monitoring and evaluation can be a very powerful
tool that directly engages with affected communities where
projects are being implemented. Participatory monitoring
involves “involves local benefciaries in measuring, recording,
collecting, processing and communicating information to assist
local development project extension works and local group
members in decision making” (FAO, 2004). Participation at the
higher level of programmes or policies follows some of the same
principles of participatory monitoring as tat conducted at the
community/project level
<Promote Participatory Monitoring>.
Many types of national policies are results based in the sense
that there are benchmark indicators that indicate that certain
goals have been met. For example, if a government is initiating a
bioenergy policy to complement a Millennium Development Goal
(MDG), the performance indicator would be the development
measurement that goal tried to achieve (one example of this could
be 15% reduction in rural energy poverty). If a government has
implemented a policy towards the achievement of a development
goal, like the example above, this would be suitable for a perfor-
mance based monitoring approach.
Evaluations provide a systematic assessment of a particular policy
and/or program. Evaluations are complementary to monitoring
systems and can be defned as a process that determines
“the worth or signifcance of a development activity, policy or
program—to determine the relevance of objectives, the effcacy
of design and implementation, the effciency or resource use,
and the sustainability of results” (World Bank, 2010). Although
the type of evaluation will differ depending on the MMRE strategy
outlined, evaluations can assess the effectiveness, impact and
unintended impacts of a policy/program; process evaluations,
impact evaluations, cost-beneft analyses and theory-based
evaluations are all examples of different types of evaluations
to consider when designing an MMRE strategy. There should
also be channels that link evaluations and results as feedback
mechanisms that provide public policy “learned lessons” for future
policy development and program development.
© Abu Riyadh Khan/HelpAge International 2005