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FAO/UNEP/UN-Energy Bioenergy Decision Support Tool -
MODULE 6: People and Processes
COSTS OF PARTICIPATORY PROCESSES
The cost of undertaking participatory processes varies consider-
ably; the time and costs across depend on the context, existing
national and local capacity for facilitating and managing participa-
tion, existing donor efforts and programmes for introducing
participatory approaches. In a country with a higher existing
capacity and intensity of participatory processes at the national
level, creating a participatory process for the bioenergy strategy
can be accomplished at lower incremental costs. However, in a
country or region with little capacity and limited experience with
participatory processes, greater initial efforts would be required
to build local capacity. The following are key areas in which
stakeholder participation has signifcant cost implications (World
Bank, 2004):
• Coordination of the process;
• Assessment of stakeholders and participation, and process
design;
• Participatory approaches leading to more comprehensive
poverty diagnostics and consulting the poor for their percep-
tions, for example, Participatory Poverty Assessments
(PPAs);
• Participatory approaches for civil society engagement that
enable discussions on priority setting and public action
choices and for building consensus, for example, national-
and local-level consultations and workshops; and
• Mechanisms for information sharing, that is, dissemination
and feedback mechanisms that include translating and
preparing documents in local languages and public informa-
tion campaigns.
Within these areas, the costs are likely to include training,
personnel costs, costs of organizing events (includes logistics,
material, and so forth), and costs of institutional coordination.
MOBILISING STAKEHOLDERS
Bioenergy development relates to, and relies upon, many sectors,
including agriculture, forests, manufacturing, transport, communi-
cations and all the allied businesses and associated infrastructure.
At the same time, the output is energy, which plays an important
role in national growth, development and poverty alleviation, and
therefore is of high importance for national and regional economic
priorities.
A move towards domestic bioenergy production may have
implications for the country’s balance of trade in energy as well
as the country’s national budget. Different national government
authorities have the responsibility for these sectors. Investments
will happen in specifc parts of the country, and some decisions
are delegated to local authorities. But the government is not the
only player. Private sector operators and fnancing agencies are
critical partners in bioenergy development as are non-govern-
mental and civil society organizations that represent the needs
and views of specifc interest groups. Consequently, the relevant
stakeholder group for bioenergy strategy development is broad
and mobilising them will require an inclusive process drawing
on different sectors, levels of government, divisions/agencies of
government and civil organisations.
Governance
The importance of good governance is to ensure that the synergy
between natural resource management and food security or
poverty reduction is well-recognised (DFID/EC/UNDP/WB, 2002).
Simply defned, governance is about:
“the capability of governments to get things done, how
they respond to the needs and rights of their citizens,
and how, in turn, people can hold their governments to
account. In short, governance is about politics – the way
in which citizens and government relate to each other
(DFID, 2006).”
Good governance has three basic requirements:
• State capability:
the extent to which leaders and govern-
ments are able to get things done – the “supply side” of
governance;
• Responsiveness:
whether public policies and institutions
respond to the needs of citizens and uphold their rights – the
“demand side” of governance;
• Accountability:
the ability of citizens, civil society and the
private sector to scrutinise public institutions and govern-
ments and hold them to account – linking the supply and
demand sides of good governance.
The role of governance in supporting more sustainable bioen-
ergy strategies is discussed briefy in this discussion, including
Political
economy
Good fit
Agricultural sector
governance
- Efficiency and equity
in service provision
- Quality of regulation
- Control of corruption
- Enforcement of rights
including right to food
Problems affecting performance
of agricultural agencies
Supply-side: Capacity of agricultural
administration to perform tasks efficiently
Demand-side: Ability of farmers to
demand good governance
Reforms that improve voice
and accountability.
Eg. political decentralization,
participatory planning
Reforms that improve public
sector capacity
Eg. civil service reform,
outsourcing, privatization
Characteristics of agrarian communities
Source: World Bank, 2008
Figure 1: Combining demand-side and supply-side approaches to improve agricultural governance