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FAO/UNEP/UN-Energy Bioenergy Decision Support Tool -
MODULE 7: Deployment and Good Practices
ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH SERVICES
It is possible to incorporate a variety of non-energy services into
bioenergy deployment in order to improve the overall effective-
ness and feasibility; provision of environmental or health-related
services is often feasible because bioenergy is so strongly
connected strongly to land use, water resources and environ-
mental management. This might include the direct provision of
ecosystem services that might otherwise not be available or
may have been previously degraded in a particular region. One
example from Sweden shows how the use of willow for bioen-
ergy simultaneously provided water pollution regulation, thereby
increasing the overall value-added (Box 4).
Similarly, health/sanitation and/or agricultural services (fertiliser)
might be provided; biogas systems are useful for such purposes
since they require a “wet” source of biomass and the scale
of biogas is closely linked to village-scale or household-scale
services. The Nepal biogas programme included provision of
toilets and sanitation services as a way of combining energy and
health/sanitation into an integrated package (Box 5). The integra-
tion of sanitation, agricultural and energy services in rural areas
depends on the “articulated demand”
<Demand Articulation
>
for
these services, and often carried out through some combination
of a public programme with private business services.
Box 3: Ethiopia household ethanol programme – mapping of actors in market development
Source: Practical Action, 2009
Project Gaia has pioneered the household use of ethanol for cooking in Ethiopia and elsewhere, based on the CleanCook stove
(Dometic, 2010). The applications have included urban locations in Addis Ababa and also UNHCR refugee camps where gathering
of wood can be dangerous as well as time-consuming. In Addis Ababa, ethanol can substitute for kerosene or for fuelwood, in both
cases contributing to reduced GHG emissions, less drudgery or cost for the household and improved health due to reduced emission
of particulates and other pollutants. http://www.projectgaia.com/. Although Gaia is a key actor in the programme, there are many
others as well, including the sugar company, fuel distributors, contractors and stove distributors (Figure 3). The market development
in Ethiopia required various negotiations with these actors in order to assure a supply of ethanol on the one hand and at the same
time facilitate demand centres through improving awareness of the benefts of the Clean Cook stove.
Enabling
Environment
Market Chain
Actors and
Linkages
Supporting
Services
Stove retailers
Stove distributors Makobu wholesale
Reasonable
ethanol pricing
Refugee
camps
UNHCR
for
camps
Low
income
Households
African /
neighbouring
country
markets
Household
market
Licence for
export market
Stove patent
protection
Reasonable taxes
for raw material
and product
Ethanol
contract for
HH sector
Gaia
Carbon
Financing
Donations
Ethanol supply
contract agency
Road transport
to Addis Adaba
Technical support
from Dometic
Dometic quality
Pump operator
Sugar Agency
ethanol production
Sugar Agency
ethanol wholesale
Sugar Agency
retail sales
Fuel retailers
Fuel distributors Makobu
Makobu
stove production