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8
FAO/UNEP/UN-Energy Bioenergy Decision Support Tool -
MODULE 8: Impacts
QUESTIONS AND SUB-QUESTIONS
REFERENCES
POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON WATER AVAILABILITY AND QUALITY World Bank/WWF. Forthcoming. Biofuels: Environmental
Sustainability Scorecard; OEKO/IFEU/UU. Forthcoming.
Bioenergy Impact Analysis Framework – BIAS.
FAO, 2010, BEFS Analytical Framework, Natural Resource
Analysis: water resource management
Is there a national and/or local water master plan?
FAO, no date. AQUASTAT – Countries and regions -
Country profles.
Is bioenergy production (and its water use) taken into account in such
a plan?
• Are there regular water shortages?
• Which other sectors are dependent on water use?
Will the area targeted for bioenergy production be part of
irrigated or rainfed agriculture?
If rainfed, is the crop used for bioenergy production suitable given
current and projected rainfall patterns?
If irrigated, will the area be part of an existing irrigation scheme or a
new irrigation scheme?
If the area will be newly developed, from which source will
the water be taken (ground water, surface water, waste
water/reclaimed water, desalinised water) and what type of
infrastructure needs to be build? (i.e. dams, pumps, river
off-takes, distribution pipes, etc.)
FAO. 2003. Training course on water harvesting (CD-ROM).
FAO. 2009. The Wastewater Database.
WHO. 2006. WHO Guidelines for the safe use of
wastewater, excreta and greywater.
FAO. 2006. Water desalination for agricultural applications.
If part of an existing scheme, will the irrigated area be an
expansion of the current area, or will it replace the current
cropping pattern?
• Which type of irrigation system will be used for bioenergy
production (surface irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, (subsurface) drip
irrigation or micro-irrigation)?
Is rainwater harvesting promoted?
To what extent will increased water withdrawals for bioenergy
production contribute to water stress/scarcity by lowering the
level of the ground water table and/or changing downstream
river hydrology and/or the size of lakes (volume/surface area)?
SEI, no date. WEAP - Water Evaluation and Planning
System
United Nations Statistics Division. 2006. Integrated
Environmental and Economic Accounting for Water
Resources.
USDA-ARS/Texas A&M University, no date. SWAT - Soil &
Water Assessment Tool
Is a measuring system in place to monitor levels and discharges
of ground and surface water resources?
• What is the amount of water to be withdrawn for bio-energy
production?
FAO, no date. AquaCrop
FAO, no date. CropWat
• To what extent will water withdrawals for bioenergy production
affect seasonal water availability, in particular in times of drought?
How does water withdrawal for bioenergy feedstocks compare to
water requirements for substituted crops?
• What is the foreseen amount of return fow of the irrigation
scheme?
To what extent will bioenergy crop production and processing
adversely impact water availability and/or quality both for
downstream ecosystem processes and services and for
downstream human activities and domestic uses (both current
and projected)?
Dougherty/Hall. 1995. Environmental impact assessment of
irrigation and drainage projects.
Water availability and quality