The issue of co-products is critical for the long-term sustainability of bioenergy systems and the material systems they connect with (such as food, feed, other energy systems, etc.). In a progressive shift, the utilization of co-products improves the energy balance and economic viability of the "primary" energy product. Additionally, in some cases the by-products can be used for electricity or heat production, but in others there is also an option to optimise the by-products for other uses such as animal feed or fertilisation.

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