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As bioenergy development relates to, and relies upon, many sectors, a strategic planning process must start with the identification and mobilization of all relevant stakehold-ers that have an active interest in bioenergy development or that will be affected by it. Box 3 provides an illustrative list of stakeholders at the national level. Representatives of all these stakeholder groups should be consulted in the process of planning for bioenergy development and should be given the chance to provide feedback on choices, assessment methodologies and implementation strategies.

To facilitate the consultation both across central govern-ment authorities and with representatives of regional/ local government, the private sector and civil society it is suggested to create two processes: (1) a stakeholder forum in which all interested parties can participate, and (2) a “Bioenergy Task Force’ that would facilitate the decision-making and could be the executive organ that reports to the broader stakeholder forum. Such a task force should consist of a core group of members, and is usually best coordinated by a government representative from one of the main sectors concerned.

The bioenergy stakeholder forum and Task Force need not, and should not, be stand-alone institutions. They should be tied into subsidiary bodies of existing national development institutions and fora, for instance stake-holder bodies and executive organs in charge of national development and poverty alleviation.

The Task Force would be the driving force throughout the entire process of strategy formulation. It should report back to the stakeholder forum at each step in the process to invite feedback and to allow for eventual corrections in view of information and clarification brought about by those key stakeholders.

State-Citizen synergy is an essential ingredient to achieve credible policy and strategy formulation and implementation. To enable this, active participation and commitment by key stakeholders throughout all stages of the policy and strategy process are important, as well as the involvement of stakeholders throughout the project cycle.

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