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Central government authorities, including those responsible for Energy

Science and research Agriculture Rural development Poverty and food insecurity Environment Forests Water Finance Planning Trade Donor liaison

Representatives of regions/local government, agricultural extension providers/organizations, energy related parastatals, for example: Energy utilities Regulatory bodies

Non-governmental organizations, for example: NGOs for environment and development Labour organizations Trade organizations Farmers organizations

Community-based Organizations

Private sector, for example:

Producers, distributors and users of biomass Providers of bioenergy facilities Producers of bioenergy technologies Research agencies Providers of advisory services Private utilities

Financing institutions

Banks and finance institutions Small-scale finance providers

Bilateral and multilateral organizations in development cooperation

Who should be engaged in national strategy and policy

For stakeholder engagement to be effective, it is critical to identify the appropriate stakeholders or stakeholder representatives to include in the process. This should cover the entire bioenergy value chain.

Engaging stakeholders on the national level

Returning to one of the first steps of developing a bioenergy policy and strategy, key national level stakehold-ers and national representatives of important regional/ local level stakeholders should be represented in the stakeholder forum and have their interests represented by a member on the Bioenergy Task Force. On the national level, these two should be the primary stakeholder-based institutions that drive the strategy process.

Engaging local communities,

particularly in project preparation and implementation

Although communities are not the only local stakeholder group, they are the group who usually faces the greatest difficulties in having their voice heard in the decision-making process. Therefore, meaningful and inclusive engagement of local communities is imperative in project planning and implementation. Besides the social respon-sibility concerns to project developers, effective commu-nity engagement can also help in identifying, preventing and mitigating social and environmental impacts that can threaten project viability, or in ground truthing, building upon local communities’ unique understanding of the local environment and social context. Following Herbertson K et al. (2009), engaging local communities should include the following:

BOX 3: National level stakeholders: an illustrative list

(ESMAP, 2005)

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