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ment, Land Utilization Types (LUT) are defined based on the assessment of agro-climatic suitability, agro-edaphic suitability, and landform suitability.

The result of the suitability assessment is expressed in “land suitability classes” ranging from very suitable, to not suitable, always with respect to a specific feedstock.

Identify and map areas of special sensitivity (“high risk” areas).

High risk areas for feedstock production in terms of potential damage to vital ecosystem functions should be clearly delineated and mapped. High risk areas include: Areas that contain high levels of carbon that, if converted for bioenergy production, could potentially be released and contribute to negative GHG balances; and Areas that contain high levels of biological diversity, that include areas that: support a large diversity of species; be important for supporting a species of conservation value such as rare, endangered or threatened species; contain ecosystems or habitats of significance and concern; and areas that because of their biological components supply goods and services that are culturally important to people; and areas of water scarcity.

Identification of these areas in a given country context should follow a transparent and inclusive process.

Bioenergy development in these areas should only be taken forward if appropriate mitigation measures and good practices can be put into place that safeguard these areas. The burden of proof is high; and if it cannot be reached, the area should be classified as ‘exclusion zone’ or ‘no-go’ area.

Identify and map existing agricultural production areas. Assess the likely expansion path for food production over the short to medium term. In order to ensure that bioenergy production does not endanger food availability, decision-makers should take into consideration possible competition for natural resources, such as land and water, to food production by an expan-sion of feedstock production. Overlaying mapping data on areas currently under agricultural production with the areas identified as “suitable land” for feedstock production highlights the areas where competition with agricultural production of food may arise immediately. If bioenergy is to be developed in these areas, it should only be done with precaution to ensure there is no negative impact on

food security, keeping in mind that food security does not depend solely upon availability of food but that access to food is critical. Some measures such as intercropping referred to in the best practices section can reduce risks to food availability.

In addition, as land requirements for food production are expected to grow over time, an assessment and mapping of possible competition for land should also consider land requirements for future supply of key staples, taking into account likely alternative supply options to meet expanding demands.

Assessments should be carried out by using a combination of top-down and bottom up approach:

Overlay infrastructure information on suitability and potential yield maps to evaluate market accessibility and the economic feasibility of feedstock production.

Mapping existing infrastructure helps to identify areas that have good access to markets and are thus more likely to be suitable for commercial operations. Key infrastructure to map, if there is available data, includes transport and communication infrastructure (e.g. major roads, railroads, ports and airports), and processing infrastructure (e.g. refineries or wood processing plants). The latter provide an indication of existing opportunities for processing or pre-processing selected biofuel feedstocks. Mapping should also include availability and reliability of electricity supply and telecommunications which are important utilities for industry. Decentralized energy supply schemes for local use may need very little infrastructure to be feasible, and in fact may be profitable precisely in areas where (grid) connection is absent or unreliable.

Conduct “ground-truthing” of promising areas for feedstock production.

The identification of potential feedstock production areas following a “top-down” data-based assessment must be accompanied by ground-truthing measures in those areas that are flagged as having a significant potential for feedstock production. Ground-truthing should verify and

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