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provide better details on the information generated by statistics and maps. Ground-truthing teams must include or work closely with local communities and other relevant local stakeholders as well as technical experts in the area to ensure that the analysis is reflective of the reality on the ground. Field level assessments should also clarify the status of land ownership and current and projected land use, possibly by overlapping user groups.

Special emphasis could be given to areas with potentially lower opportunity cost – marginal and degraded lands

The use of marginal or degraded land for crop production may provide an opportunity to produce bioenergy limiting competition with food production, and if managed in an appropriate way can restore or improve soil quality – lead-ing to enhanced carbon sequestration. Marginal land can be defined either with respect to biophysical or economic performance. In biophysical terms it is land that can only support less than 40% of yields– always in relation to a specific crop. In economic terms marginal land is land where cost-effective production is not possible. Land degradation is a long term loss of ecosystem function, services and land productivity. Many degraded lands are in use. Utilizing marginal and degraded lands for feedstock production may reduce some risks, yet there are signifi-

cant challenges and trade-offs to be considered. These include low yields and greater needs for irrigation and fertilizers. Others are related to the identification whether the lands are truly marginal or degraded.

Even though some land may be classified as marginal or degraded with respect to dominant use systems, this seemingly marginal and unproductive land may fill invalu-able roles and possess other values such as: providing environmental services, serving as a source of natural resources for pastoralists and subsistence farmers, as wildlife corridors, and for the filtration and maintenance of water quality. Displacement of such functions may disrupt important balances with consequences outweighing any environmental benefits from the bioenergy production. Therefore, great care should be taken when identifying these areas and current land use patterns must be analysed systematically, and performed in dialogue with local stakeholders.

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The Four Step Process* is another approach or process that can be used in determining land suitability for bioenergy production. The process is as follows:

Use of publicly available global map datasets to identify strictly protected areas, and broad zones of high and low risk for development.

Review of publicly available maps

Global data on carbon, biodiversity and other values

Identification of protected areas and broad zones of high and low risk.

National/Regional consultation

Consultation with relevant institutions and experts Identification of important features not identified in global maps Site selection

Detailed site-level assessment and planning

Consultation with local people and feild-based data collection Delineation, and management plan for no-go areas Identification of appropriate areas for potential development

Implementation of responsible land management

Development of appropriate areas, involving stakeholders in decision making On-going monitoring of impacts, and adaptive management Compliance with international best practice

Use of publicly available global map datasets to identify strictly protected areas, and broad zones of high and low risk for development.

Use of publicly available global map datasets to identify strictly protected areas, and broad zones of high and low risk for development.

Use of publicly available global map datasets to identify strictly protected areas, and broad zones of high and low risk for development.

LANDSCAPE LEVEL ASSESSMENT

SITE LEVEL MAPPING

SCREENING

RESPONSIBLE MANAGEMENT

*The Four Step Process has been developed by IUCN. In its suitable land identification process it uses the terms ‘no-go’ and ‘go’ areas to signal potential areas for cultivation. ‘No-go’ terminology in this process is similar to the use of the term ‘exclusion area’ or ‘exclusion zone’ in this document.

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