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Just as there are many different technology options to produce bioenergy, there is an array of different institutional options. These various institutional options can be identi-fied during the feedstock production stage and will differ in terms of: scale of operations, ownership structure and the level of partnership between different stakeholders. The extremes are large-scale plantation models owned and operated by a single company on the one hand and small scale community initiatives for the production of energy for local or even household use on the other.

Concession farming, contract farming, and small scale schemes are three main types of processing schemes that are particular to bioenergy feedstock production, although six broad categories of feedstock production schemes can be distinguished, these depend on:

The relationship between the feedstock producer and the processing company, namely:

Concession farming: A processing company (large or small) that produces the feedstock on its own land or leased land

Contract farming: A processing company (large or small) that buys the feedstock from outgrowers (large or small)

The scale of operations of the processing plant, i.e. large scale for national or export markets or small scale for local use, and;

The scale and ownership of the farming operation. i.e. large industrial plantations owned by the processing company (corporate ownership), large commercial private farms (individual or corporate ownership) or small scale farmers (private, but often on customary land without individual freehold title)

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