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Table 1 provides an illustration of the context for these processing schemes. The choice of appropriate schemes must take into account the end use market of the product and the technology adopted. As well, the potential risks and benefits of each of these types of schemes must be considered, with particular attention to risks and implications on social aspects such as income generation opportunities and rural employment.

Impacts and risks linked to bioenergy implementation and ways to address them

Concession farming is usually used to describe large scale bioenergy feedstock production by a large operator but could also describe small operations run collectively by a single operator such as a co-operative. In bioenergy development, concessions can entail primarily two types of risks related to employment and labor conditions, and competition for land and natural resources. Although large scale schemes can generate many employment opportunities, this depends on the degree of mechaniza-tion employed – these potential job losses have to be considered before implementation.

Table 1: Main types of bioenergy feedstock production schemes

Land belongs to Size of the land unit on

which the feedstock is produced

Size of the processing scheme and intended market Large scale – bioenergy produced for national or international markets

Small scale –

bioenergy produced for local use Company Large scale commercial

farms owned by the biofu-els producing company

A : Concession D: Concession

Farmer Large scale private farms

(including farms that produce biofuel for their own on-farm use)

B: Contract

(though these farms may be concessions as well)

E: Contract or concession

Small scale private farms C: Contract F: Contract or Cooperative

Scheme

A: Large corporate farms for large scale biofuel production

B: Private commercial farms in support of large scale biofuel production C: Small scale outgrowers providing feedstock to large scale biofuel production D: Large corporate farms for small scale biofuel productionm E: Private farms for small scale biofuel production

F: Small scale private farms providing feedstock to local small scale energy providers

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