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ecosystem and its functions, to favouring specific socially or economically valuable species or groups of species for the improved production of goods and services. SFM enables forest resources to produce to perpetuity and at the same time maintain the environmental and protection services that the resource provides such as soil and watershed protection. Although Sustainable Forest Management is a very broad concept that includes a number of elements, there are many practices that can be used to ensure the sustainability of forest resources including for use in biofuel production, such as: the use of certification schemes, forest pest and disease management, forest fire management, creation of forest governance and clear tenure rights, restoration, and community-based forest management.

Transport, Conversion, and Storage In addition to agricultural practices, there are a variety of good practices for transport, storage and conversion along a bioenergy supply chain. For transportation, the first

general recommendation for mitigating harmful practices is to minimize transport as much as possible. Developing infrastructure for bioenergy supply chains is an important component for this, and planning cultivation areas that are close to conversion facilities and end-users would minimize the traditional fossil fuels that are often used in transporta-tion. Transportation modes that also

reduce energy needs (and subsequently reduce GHGs from conventional transport fuels) should also be considered.

For storage, most types of feedstock can only be harvest-ed for parts of the year and storage is thus essential for supplying the energy service and/or energy carrier all year around. Storage can be done in many different ways and the best way often depends on the feedstock. Dry storage, when possible, is preferable as it reduces dry matter loss. If the produced energy carrier such as vegetable oil, biodiesel, ethanol, woodpellets and charcoal is stored, appropriate storage tanks that do not pose a threat to the

Table 2: Sustainable Agricultural Approaches

Agroforestry Agroforestry focuses on integrating trees into agriculturally productive landscapes to preserve the crucial role

that trees play in almost all terrestrial ecosystems, where they provide a range of products and services to rural and urban people. Conservation Agriculture (CA)

CA follows three basic principles - avoiding continuous mechanical soil disturbance, maintaining permanent organic soil cover and using adapted crop rotations.

Eco-agriculture Eco-agriculture is an approach to managing landscapes to meet three goals: conserve biodiversity and

ecosystem services; provide agricultural products sustainably and support viable livelihoods for local people. Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)

Good Agricultural Practices refer to codes of practices and principles to apply on voluntary basis for on-farm production and post-production processes, resulting in safe and healthy food and non-food agricultural products, while taking into account economical, social and environmental sustainability. Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

IPM is the careful integration of a number of available pest control techniques that discourage the develop-ment of pest populations and keep pesticides and other interventions to levels that are economically justified and safe for human health and the environment.

Organic Agriculture Organic farming is a form of agriculture that relies on crop rotation, green manure, compost, biological pest

control, and mechanical cultivation to maintain and improve soil productivity and control pests, excluding or strictly limiting the use of synthetic fertilizers and synthetic pesticides, plant growth regulators, livestock feed additives, and genetically modified organisms. Sustainable Land Management (SLM)

SLM is “the adoption of land use systems that, through appropriate management practices, enables land users to maximize the economic and social benefits from the land while maintaining or enhancing the ecological support functions of the land resources” (TerrAfrica vision paper, 2008, www.terrafrica.org). Integrated Water Resource Manage-ment (IWRM)

IWRM has been defined as “a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems” (Global Water Partnership).

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